Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Degrees

Today’s lifestyle is quite busy for everybody and hence for reasons like promotion, career advancement, and for learning purpose all of us are in search of online education. Many students are choosing online education for pursuing their degrees. Almost 60 percent of the students complete their courses successfully and that is because they are aware of the advantages of online degrees. Any university that is accredited, awards online degrees to students on various fields. Online degrees are offered for almost all the subjects like Political Science, Finance, Business Administration, Law, Engineering, Accounting, Economics, Mathematics, Graphic Designing, History and Medicine too.

The only difference from an online degree and the traditional degree is the way of teaching. As an online degree student, you will attend classes, will work on projects, will ask questions and discuss with the professors and will also appear for examinations, but only through a virtual environment. Your classroom will have bulletin boards and text chats and at times you may have virtual workgroup for problem solving. Depending on your online degree program, you will have synchronous and asynchronous sessions.

Enrolment for online degrees can be done by filling the online admission forms. You will have the choice to select the cost effective university and the university with more online degree programs.

The main advantage of earning an online degree is the learning environment. Wherever you are, as long as you are connected to the Internet, your online degree follows with you. If you can properly mange your time then your online degree sessions will fit in your busy schedule. Your degree program can also be completed with your pace of study. Online degree offers you the benefit to attend classes from your home or any convenient location of yours. You can also apply to any university of any country that offers online degree programs. With these online degree programs available nobody can use excuses like unable to pursue education. Most of the online degree courses can be completed within the stipulated period or shorter than this when compared with the similar types of degree programs that are campus-based. Only you can delay your course completion, if you did not do time management properly. Even monetarily you can save a lot by opting online degree like the tuition fee will be lesser than campus-based degree and the credit hours will also be comparatively less. Most of your learning materials will be of downloading format and so you can save lot of time and money by studying online degree courses.

There are disadvantages of online education if you don’t fit as a right candidate for the online degree. You have to properly manage your time with family, work and study. Your planning for the sessions are very important and so studying on your pace will increase the duration of online degree completion. Since the learning materials will be in text and downloadable format, you should be comfortable with reading and if your choice is listening, then you have to …

PEACE PSYCHOLOGY

PEACE PSYCHOLOGY

        *Dr.N.V.S.SURYANARAYANA **NEELIMA VANGAPANDU ***GOTETI HIMABINDU ****J.RAMESH

Introduction:

Peace psychology is broad discipline as conflict and the need for peace occurs in all human arenas. Peace psychology research has been conducted in a variety of contexts examining such disparate concerns as domestic violence; school shootings; structural forms of violence (e.g., institutionalized forms of bias and the systematic violation of human rights); and mass violence, including ethno political conflict, genocide, terrorism, and war. Peace psychologists have also worked to develop and assess programs aimed at teaching concepts and strategies of peace, effective conflict resolution skills, as well as reconciliation and reconstruction following conflict. Such programs have been implemented around the globe with such disparate populations as young school age children in the United States to survivors of the Rwandan genocide.

Peace psychology is not a stand-alone discipline. Rather it draws on research from other disciplines outside of as well as within psychology, including but not limited to clinical psychology, social psychology, political psychology, media psychology, developmental psychology, political science, history, education, sociology, international relations, and peace studies.

Peace psychology can be defined as “the study of mental processes that lead to violence, that prevent violence, and that facilitate nonviolence as well as promoting fairness, respect, and dignity for all, for the purpose of making violence a less likely occurrence and helping to heal its psychological effects” Another definition is that “peace psychology seeks to develop theories and practices aimed at the prevention and mitigation of direct and structural violence.   Framed positively, peace psychology promotes the nonviolent management of conflict and the pursuit of social justice, what we refer to as peacemaking and peace building, respectively” (Christie,
Wagner, & Winter, 2000). Though peace psychology has links within all branches of psychology, there are especially strong links to social psychology, political psychology, and   community psychology      and          positive psychology.        Peace psychologists have developed a number of themes over the years. The psychological causes of war
and other forms of violence is one such theme, as well as the psychological consequences. Along with these are the causes and consequences of behavior intended to counter violence  commonly referred  to as       nonviolence  or nonviolent action. Other remedies to violent behavior include peace education and conflict resolution. In early
years, focus was on international affairs. Through time those interested in peace psychology have more commonly     thought that other forms of violence are precursors to war, share with war many of the same causes and consequences, and are threats to peace even in the absence of outright war. These include domestic violence,
hate crimes, the death penalty, and abuses of medicine, and institutional arrangements which foster poverty or environmental degradation.

Meaning of peace:

Peace is a quality describing a society or a relationship that is operating harmoniously. This is commonly understood as the absence of hostility, or the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships, safety in matters of social or economic welfare, the acknowledgment of equality and fairness in political relationships and, in world …

Beyond Estimation: the Value of a College Degree

If you’re looking to change careers or start a new career, you’ve probably considered heading back to school. But with college tuitions expanding and job markets shrinking, you wonder: is it really worth it? The latest research sheds some light on the tough questions that you should ask before heading back to school.

Many high school guidance counselors may tell you that a college education is worth about $1 million over the course of a working life. While that may have once been the case, a recent study by Skidmore economist Sandy Baum and the College Board estimates the real value of a college degree at about $300,000. While the drop in value is significant, there are good reasons.

According to Baum’s research, college graduates on average earn $20,000 more annually than workers with only high school diplomas. Over a forty-year career, that adds up to about $800,000. Since that figure represents lifetime earnings, an adjustment for inflation brings the figure down to about $450,000. Finally, the cost of tuition and books at a public university ($30,000 if you don’t qualify for any financial aid or scholarships) drops the figure to $300,000.

If the numbers look grim, don’t throw up your hands just yet. Despite the gap between the older and newer appraisals, a college degree may still be one of the wisest investments you can make.

Fringe Benefits
Although you may not end up earning the $50,000 annual salary (according to Baum’s research, the average for graduates of bachelor’s degree programs), you may find additional benefits that offset your costs. Bachelor’s degree holders are more likely to land a job with health insurance–a valuable commodity with rising healthcare costs.

Also, because the job market places such importance on college education, you may have an easier time finding and holding a job with a degree than without. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the unemployment rate among students with a bachelor’s degree stood at 2.2 percent in 2007–compared to 3 percent for associate’s degree-holders and 4.4 percent for those who only have a high school diploma.

If your career aspirations include advanced degrees (in business, law, or medicine, for example), holding a bachelor’s degree is usually the first step to more advanced education, which can mean significantly higher earnings.

Benefits of Not Earning a College Degree
While research suggests college education is important, it would be unwise to bill a college degree as the golden ticket to success–Bill Gates is a shining example of what one college dropout can achieve. The most obvious benefit of bypassing college degree is avoiding the expense. By starting a career right away, you could be $30,000 richer in the immediate term. Many potentially lucrative careers offer paid on-the-job training and apprenticeships, resulting in pay comparable to the average for bachelor’s degree holders. A radiological technician, for example, can land a job with a two-year associate’s degree. According to the BLS, in May 2007, median annual earnings for radiologists and radiologic technicians were …

Types of Associate Degree

An Associate Degree is a type of academic degree that is awarded by a bachelor’s degree-granting institution, junior colleges and community colleges as well. Typically, an associate degree is equivalent to the first two years of a bachelor’s degree program. Associates degrees are awarded in the United States and, more rarely, Canada, though this type of degree is also being added to the academic degree systems of other countries.

Australia added associate degrees to their Australian Qualifications Framework in 2004, though very few academic programs have begun to use the title. In the United Kingdom, foundation degrees are the equivalent to associate’s degrees. As an equivalent to higher diplomas, Hong Kong initiated various associate’s degree programs.

There are four general categories of associate’s degrees, Associate of Arts, Associate of Science, Associate of Applied Science and Associate of Business Administration.

Associate of Arts degrees are generally awarded for academic programs that are intended for transfer to a four year university or college. Typically students working toward an AA degree will major in social sciences of humanities, though general studies students may also receive Associate of Arts degrees.

Associate of Science degrees are, like AA degrees, awarded to those seeking to enter the work force or a four year college or university upon completion of an associate’s degree program.

Associate of Applied Science degrees are awarded to students to relax some of the general education requirements so that when the have completed the associate’s degree portion of their education, they can focus more on their specific area of study. This type of associate’s degree is especially intended for those seeking to continue their education at a four year college or university.

Associate of Business Administration degrees are often awarded to students for completing academic programs that are terminal or intended for continuing education at a four year university or college, typically with a business related major.

Many people earn associate’s bachelor’s and master’s degrees while working by attending evening classes. This practice has become so prevalent that t has been estimated that more degrees are earned this way than through full-time day studies. Getting an associate’s degree is a wonderful way to get started on furthering your education.…

Teaching models

                                                        TEACHING MODELS

Dr. N.V.S.Suryanarayana

Teaching is often thought of as something that comes rather naturally to people who know their subject.  In general, it is thought that it is a simple process that produces simple outcomes.1 But teaching is an intriguing, important and complex process.2 It takes place in a complicated social institution, which is filled with diverse people.  It is a fluid interplay of events.  One can just know the subject and teach it, because the subjects themselves are ever changing.  It is true that teaching is a process by which teacher and students create a shared environment including sets of values and beliefs which in turn color their view of reality.3  The teacher must learn to control five processes of teaching; firstly, making and using knowledge, secondly, shaping the school, thirdly, teaching with strategy, fourthly, creating interpersonal climates and fifth and lastly controlling a teaching personality.4  Bruner also emphasized four major features of theory of instruction in effective teaching (i) predisposition toward learning, (ii) structured body of knowledge, (iii) sequences of material to be learnt, and (iv) the nature and pacing of reward and punishment.5  It means that a theory of instruction in teaching is concerned with how what one wishes to teach can best learnt, with improving rather than describing learning.

Research on Teaching

            Research on teaching styles demonstrate vigorous changes during the past decade.  As with any developing field all stages of the movement are visible simultaneously, but there appears to be a clearly discernible pattern to the development.

Phase I Validation of Theoretically Derived Teaching Construct

            In the first phase during the 1960s and early 1970s, a flurry of studies attempted the validation of theoretically derived teaching construct, usually dichotomous variables that carried on implicit, if not explicit, value preference.  Several instrumentation break through (Medley and Mitzel 1958,6  Flanders 1960) allowed the dominative versus integrative construct of Anderson (1939)7 and the teacher centered versus learner centered notion of Withall (1949)8 to be examined in classrooms.  The research for the most effective teaching style was pursued with much excitement during this period.

Phase II Specific Behaviour of Pupils

            The next phase focused on specific behaviours that are related to learning outcomes of pupils rather than on global teaching styles.  This phase continues actively today as specific teacher  variables are tested in various settings to determine the utility.

Phase III Research-Based Teaching Pattern

            A third critical, bur rather rudimentary, phase has just begun to emerge from the research base.  The development of research derived teaching patterns or styles has started to occur, at least for children of a particular age in particular settings.  Only a few patterns have been identified, but the ones that have emerged are firmly rooted in empirical research rather than derived from theory.  Within this phase, there is an attempt to develop generic patterns or styles that have broad utility as well as the possibility of synthesizing specific patterns effective for particular Children in specific settings.

            The research on teacher effectiveness has been …